Select Page



My primary research interest is in the distribution and behavior of unstudied populations of great apes across Africa’s Congo Basin, in particular of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. At every new site where chimpanzees have been studied, they have been found to possess site-specific suites of behavioral traits, argued to represent cultural diversity. Large tracts of forests, particularly in the Northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, remain unexplored, and it is unknown whether or not they are inhabited by apes, or if so, how many apes. By conducting systematic surveys using line transects as well as recces and presence / absence data, we can develop a clearer picture of the distribution of African great apes in these hitherto unexplored forests.

In addition, I seek to understand the distribution of ape traditions, how they map onto genetic diversity, and how they are affected by proposed ape barriers such as rivers. Understanding where the apes live and how their behaviors are similar to or different from those of other populations is a crucial tool in assuring their survival, and also has much to tell us about our own biological and cultural evolution.

Wykształcenie i badania:
Guest researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Primatology
PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam. “A Chimpanzee Mega-Culture? Exploring behavioral continuity in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii across northern DR Congo”. [Link]. In order to complete this thesis, I spent two and a half years in the field in DR Congo studying the Bili-Uele chimpanzees
Master’s thesis, Central Washington University: „Chimpanzee Tool Use in the Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic,” based on the data I collected during my 2001–2002 field expedition to the Ngotto Forest,  CAR
Undergraduate studies: NC State University and University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (I graduated from the latter with a degree in Anthropology)
Nagrody i wyróżnienia:

Hicks TC & Fouts R, 2004. Winner of Outstanding Student Presentation Award the Third Central Washington University Graduate Student and Faculty Conference. Chimpanzee Tool Use in the Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic.  

Hicks TC, Roessing P & Menken SBJ. 2015. Winner of the AH Schultz Award for Best Paper (Folia Primatologica / Primate Society of Great Britain). For the article: „Impact of Humans on Long-Distance Communication Behaviour of Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Northern Democratic Republic of the Congo.” 2013. Folia Primatologica 84.3: 135-156.  

Informacje dodatkowe:

Languages: English native speaker, fluent in French and Spanish, conversational in Lingala, Sangho and Babenzele. German, Dutch, Polish – works in progress! 

Author and illustrator of the children’s book on conservation ‘A Rhino to the Rescue: A Tale of Conservation and Adventure’ (links below): 


  • Hicks T. C., Kühl H. S., Boesch C., Dieguez P., Ayimisin A. E., Fernaandez R. M., Zungawa D. B., Kambere M., Swinkels J., Menken S. B. J., Hart J., Mundry R., & Roessingh P. Submitted for publication. Specialized chimpanzee technology in Northern DR Congo: The Bili-Uéré Behavioral Realm.
  • Hicks T.C. (2016). Non-Darwinian Notions of Kinship and Friendship Between Humans and Great Apes in the Congo Basin. Pp. 122-131 in: K. Marciniak & E. Olechowska (eds.) De Amicitia / Transdisciplinary Studies in Friendship. Faculty of Artes Liberales, University of Warsaw. (And illustrations throughout the book).
  • Lapuente, J., Hicks T.C., & Linsenmair K.E. (2016). Fluid dipping technology of chimpanzees in Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast. American Journal of Primatology. 10.1002/ajp.22628
  • Kühl, H. S., Kalan, A. K., Arandjelovic, M., Aubert, F., D’Auvergne, L., Goedmakers, A., Jones, S., Kehoe, L., Regnaut, S., Tickle, A., Ton, E., van Schijndel, J., Abwe, E. E., Angedakin, S., Agbor, A., Ayimisin, E. A., Bailey, E., Bessone, M., Bonnet, M., Brazolla, G., Ebua Buh, V., Chancellor, R., Cipoletta, C., Cohen, H., Corogenes, K., Coupland, C., Curran, B., Deschner, T., Dierks, K., Dieguez, P., Dilambaka, E., Diotoh, O., Dowd, D., Dunn, A., Eshuis, H., Fernandez, R., Ginath, Y., Hart, J., Hedwig, D., Ter Heegde, M., Hicks, T. C., Imong, I. S., Jeffery, K. J., Junker, J., Kadam, P., Kambi, M., Kienast, I., Kujirakwinja, D., Langergraber, K. E., Lapeyre, V., Lapuente, J., Lee, K., Leinert, V., Meier, A., Maretti, G., Marrocoli, S., Mbi, T. J., Mihindou, V., Möbius, Y. B., Morgan, D., Morgan, B., Mulindahabi, F., Murai, M., Niyigabae, P., Normand, E., Ntare, N., Orsmby, L. J., Piel, A., Pruetz, J., Rundus, A., Sanz, C., Sommer, V., Stewart, F., Tagg, N., Vanleeuwe, H., Vergnes, V., Willie, J., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbuehler, K., & Boesch, C. (2016). Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing. Scientific Reports, 6: 22219.
  • Hicks, T. C. (2016). A Leopard’s Breakfast Interrupted: Further Explorations of a Congolese Wilderness. In We Discover. Marc Guttman, Editor. Pronoun Books. 370 pp.
  • Hicks, T. C., Tranquilli, S., Kühl, H. S., Campbell, G., Swinkels, J., Darby, L., Boesch, C., Hart, J., & Menken, S. B. (2014). Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence: Discovery of a large, continuous population of Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in the Central Uele region of northern DRC. Biological Conservation, 171, 107-113.
  • Tranquilli, S., Abedi-Lartey, M., Abernethy, K., Amsini, F., Asamoah, A., Balangtaa, C., Blake, S., Bouanga, E., Breuer, T., Brncic, T. M., Campbell, G., Chancellor, R., Chapman, C. A., Davenport, T. R. B., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Ekobo, A., Eno-Nku, M., Etoga, G., Furuichi, T., Gatti, S., Ghiurghi, A., Hashimoto, C., Hart, J. A., Head, J., Hega, M., Herbinger, I., Hicks, T. C., Holbech, L. H., Huijbregts, B., Kühl, H. S., Imong, I., Yeno, S.-L.-D., Linder, J., Marshall, P., Lero, P. M., Morgan, D., Mubalama, L., N’Goran, P. K., Nicholas, A., Nixon, S., Normand, E., Nziguyimpa, L., Nzooh-Dongmo, Z., Ofori-Amanfo, R., Ogunjemite, B. G., Petre, C.-A., Rainey, H. J., Regnaut, S., Robinson, O., Rundus, A., Sanz, C. M., Okon, D. T., Todd, A., Warren, Y., & Sommer, V. (2014). Protected areas in tropical Africa: Assessing threats and conservation activities. PLoS One, 9(12): e114154.
  • Maisels, F., Strindberg, S., Blake, S., Wittemyer, G., Hart, J., Williamson, E. A., Aba’a, R., Abitsi, G., Ambahe, R. D., Amsini, F., Bakabana, P. C., Hicks, C., Bayogo, R. E., Bechem, M., Beyers, R. L., Bezangoye, A. N., Boundja, P., Bout, N., Akou, M. E., Bene, L. B., Fosso, B., Greengrass, E., Grossmann, F., Ikamba-Nkulu, C., Ilambu, O., Inogwabini, B.-I., Iyenguet, F., Kiminou, F., Kokangoye, M., Kujirakwinja, D., Latour, S., Liengola, I., Mackaya, Q., Madidi, J., Madzoke, B., Makoumbou, C., Malanda, G.-A., Malonga, R., Mbani, O., Mbendzo, V. A., Ambassa, E., Ekinde, A., Mihindou, Y., Morgan, B. J., Motsaba, P., Moukala, G., Mounguengui, A., Mowawa, B. S., Ndzai, C., Nixon, S., Nkumu, P., Nzolani, F., Pintea, L., Plumptre, A., Rainey, H., de Semboli, B. B., Serckx, A., Stokes, E., Turkalo, A., Vanleeuwe, H., Vosper, A., & Warren, Y. (2013). Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa. PLoS One, 8(3): e59469.
  • Hicks, C., Roessingh, P., & Menken, S. B. J. (2013). Impact of humans on long-distance communication behaviour of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Northern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Folia primatologica, 84(3-5), 135-156.
  • Junker, J., Blake, S., Boesch, C., Campbell, G., du Toit, L., Duvall, C., Ekobo, A., Etoga, G., Galat-Luong, A., Gamys, J., Ganas-Swaray, J., Gatti, S., Ghiurghi, A., Granier, N., Hart, J., Head, J. S., Herbinger, I., Hicks, T. C., Huijbregts, B., Imong, I. S., Kuempel, N., Lahm, S., Lindsell, J., Maisels, F., McLennan, M., Martinez, L., Morgan, B., Morgan, D., Mulindahabi, F., Mundry, R., N’Goran, P. K., Normand, E., Ntongho, A., Okon, D. T., Petre, C.-A., Plumptre, A., Rainey, H., Regnaut, S., Sanz, C., Stokes, E., Tondossama, A., Tranquilli, S., Sunderland-Groves, J., Walsh, P., Warren, Y., Williamson, E. A., & Kuehl, H. S. (2012). Recent decline in suitable environmental conditions for African great apes. Diversity and Distributions, 18(11), 1077-1091.
  • Hicks, T. C., Roessingh, P., & Menken, S. B. (2012). Reactions of Bili-Uele chimpanzees to humans in relation to their distance from roads and villages. American Journal of Primatology, 74(8), 721-733.
  • Tranquilli, S., Abedi-Lartey, M., Amsini, F., Arranz, L., Asamoah, A., Babafemi, O., Barakabuye, N., Campbell, G., Chancellor, R., Davenport, T. R., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Ellis, C., Etoga, G., Furuichi, T., Gatti, S., Ghiurghi, A., Greengrass, E., Hashimoto, C., Hart, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, T. C., Holbech, L. H., Huijbregts, B., Imong, I., Kumpel, N., Maisels, F., Marshall, P., Nixon, S., Normand, E., Nziguyimpa, L., Nzooh-Dogmo, Z., Okon, D. T., Plumptre, A., Rundus, A., Sunderland-Groves, J., Todd, A., Warren, Y., Mundry, R., Boesch, C., & Kühl, H. S. (2012). Lack of conservation effort rapidly increases African great ape extinction risk. Conservation Letters, 5(1), 48-55.
  • Hicks, C. (2011). Encounters with Bili chimpanzees in the undisturbed Gangu Forest. In M. M. Robbins, & C. Boesch (Eds.), Among African Apes: Stories and Photos from the Field (pp. 43-60). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
  • Hicks, C., Darby, L., Hart, J., Swinkels, J., January, N., & Menken, S. (2010). Trade in orphans and bushmeat threatens one of the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s most important populations of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). African Primates, 7(1), 1-18.
  • Plumptre A, Rose R, Nagnendo G, Williamson E, Didier K, Hart J, Mulindahabi F, Hicks C, Griffin B, Ogawa H, Nixon S, Pintea L, Vosper A, McLennan M, Amsini F, McNeilage A, Makana J. R, Kanamori M, Hernandez A, Piel A, Stewart F, Moore J, Zamma K, Nakamura M, Kamenya S, Idani G, Saka T, Yoshikawa M, Greer D, Tranquilli S., Beyers R, & Bennett, E. (2010). Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for the Eastern Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), 2010-2020. IUCN, Gland, Witzerland.
  • Hicks T. C, Fouts R & Fouts D. (2009). A survey of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the selectively-logged Ngotto Forest, The Central African Republic. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2: 165-188.
  • Hicks T. C, Fouts R & Fouts D. (2005). Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) tool use in the Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic. American Journal of Primatology 65:221-237.


Ta strona używa plików Cookies. Dowiedz się wiecej o celu ich używania oraz możliwości zmiany ustawień Cookies w przeglądarce.
Skip to content